In experiments on pea breeding, Mendel observed the different kinds of seeds obtained by crosses between round yellow seeds and wrinkled green seeds. Possible types of progeny were: ``round yellow'', ``wrinkled yellow'', ``round green'', and ``wrinkled green.'' We call the data categorical when the recorded data

$\displaystyle C_1,\ldots,C_n

take values on several types, or categories. Then the frequency of a particular value (or type) is observed in the categorical data, and the probability of such occurrence is called the population proportion.

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